Qualitative Research Case Study Method
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research...
Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 21 – January 2006 The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research. Florian Kohlbacher. Abstract: This paper aims at exploring ...
Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Just like multiple viewpoints allow for greater accuracy in geometry, (organizational) researchers can improve the accuracy of their judgments by collecting different kinds of data bearing on the same phenomenon (jick, 1979, p. Contemporary case study research is said to have its origins in qualitative approaches to research in the disciplines of anthropology, history, psychology, and sociology (merriam, 1998 simons, 2009 stewart, 2014). Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included.
If they (agree) then we can be reasonably confident that we are getting the true picture (gillham, 2000, p. Similar to yin (2014) and merriam (2009), a case or cases are selected for what they can reveal about topic of interest and depend on the aim and conditions of the study. The simplest type of evaluation consequently consists of counting the numbers of occurrences per category (assuming there is a relationship between frequency of content and meaning).
Subject-reference instead of technique instead of merely being a set of techniques for text analysis, the connection to the concrete subject of analysis is a very important point for qualitative content analysis. Providing only an introduction to the theoretical argument, the need for further theoretical discussion as well as the empirical testing of the argument is obvious. Thus, the material is reduced and a new basis of information separate from the original text comes into existence (ibid.
Study propositions, theory, research or issue questions work as a conceptual framework and need to align with the case to guide the design and determine methods of data collection and analysis (stake, 2006 stewart, 2014 yin, 2014). Categories in the center of analysis the aspects of text interpretation, following the research questions, are put into categories, which were carefully founded and revised within the process of analysis (feedback loops). Stake (1995, 2006) has an approach to case study research that is qualitative and closely aligned with a constructivist and interpretivist orientation.
Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research an integrative review. Both the dimensions of existing categories can be modified and new categories can be designed. He contends that any of these strategies can be used in practicing five specific techniques for analyzing case studies pattern matching, explanation building, time-series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis (yin, 2003a, pp.
However, when analyzing the frequency of keywords considerable deviations from the citation analysis turned up a marked dominance of qualitative (and also quantitative) content analysis (titscher et al. However, he fails to go into greater detail concerning this matter. It will be examined whether the problem locations, where there is some disagreement about coding, differ systematically from the material. Einführung in die qualitative sozialforschung, eine anleitung zu qualitativem denken mostyn, barbara (1985). For stake case study research is the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances (p.
Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations...
Table 1: Case study elements and descriptors  A final, critical point when conducting case study research is the importance of careful preparation and planning ...
Qualitative Research Case Study Method
The case study as a type of qualitative research
The case study as a type of qualitative research 29 Introduction Case studies were one of the first types of research to be used in the field of
Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Mills (2014) distinguishes methods as procedures and techniques employed in the study, while methodology is the lens through which the researcher views and makes decisions about the study, There are a number of definitions and descriptions presented across the literature.
Therefore they argue in favor of a theory-based category system, Boblin.
In general, data analysis means a search for patterns in data (neuman, 1997, p, Primarily exploratory and explanatory in nature, case study is used to gain an understanding of the issue in research questions (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 simons, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart.
In fact, despite this openness, In their bibliometric survey on the prominence of methods of text analysis, titscher et al.
First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Lincoln (eds.
Finally, assumes stability and reproducibility and denotes the extent to which the analysis meets a particular functional standard (krippendorff, 2004, pp. One of the key features of qualitative content analysis in contrast to classical quantitative content analysis is that the context is also central to the interpretation and analysis of the material.
Case Study Research Design - How to conduct a Case Study
Given the variation in definitions and descriptions, referring to case study research as a methodology andor a single method can be perplexing, misleading, and at times counterproductive (anthony & jack, 2009 boblin, ireland, kirkpatrick & robertson, 2013 flyvbjerg, 2011). Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines and their philosophical underpinnings have created variety and diversity in approaches used. Figure 1 basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis (source author based on gläser & laudel, 1999, p. As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. As a matter of fact, its quantitative counterpartclassical content analysisis repeatedly mentioned as a method of analyzing data in the context of conducting case study research (cf.
For an extensive review and analysis of case study research reference should be made to the state-of-the-art literature (e. Subjectivity is openly acknowledged and to manage this, the researcher embraces a reflexive stance within the study, adopting methods such as memoing and journaling that support this position (denzin & lincoln, 2011 miles et al. In fact, a theory or theoretical framework first emerges through the inductive approach of studying an empirical case or object, not through a deductive process. At the same time, qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the complexity and gradually reduce it. They conclude with a definition that collates the hallmarks of key approaches and represents the core features of a case study case study research is a qualitative approach in which the investigator explores a bounded system (a case) or multiple bounded systems (cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information (e.
Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results (ibid. While objectivity is a goal, yin also recognizes the descriptive and interpretive elements of case study. In this article, we examine each of these issues in turn, with the aim of improving our understanding of case study research and clarifying the requisite tenets to consider when designing a case study. Since this paper only aims to serve as the starting point for a more thorough discussion of the application of qualitative content analysis for case study research, the scope is rather narrow. The qualitative step of analysis consists of a methodologically controlled assignment of the category to a passage of text (mayring, 2000a, 13). Just like multiple viewpoints allow for greater accuracy in geometry, (organizational) researchers can improve the accuracy of their judgments by collecting different kinds of data bearing on the same phenomenon (jick, 1979, p. Merriam (1998) maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially. In uwe flick, ernst von kardorff & ines steinke (eds. Cassell and symon (1994) for instance give the following list of defining characteristics for qualitative research a focus on interpretation rather than quantification an emphasis on subjectivity rather than objectivity flexibility in the process of conducting research an orientation towards process rather than outcome a concern with contextregarding behaviour and situation as inextricably linked in forming experience and finally, an explicit recognition of the impact of the research process on the research situation (p. Last but not least, empirical testing and experience will be indispensable to ensure methodological and practical advances of this method.The case study has been especially used in social science, psychology, anthropology and ecology. This method of study is especially useful for trying to test ...
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He presented a structured process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research. We end with a summary of the common characteristics of case study research and a table that brings together the fundamental elements that we found common in all case study approaches to research. Thus, a clear and concise definition of qualitative research can hardly be found. Case study designs have been used across a number of disciplines, particularly the social sciences, education, business, law, and health, to address a wide range of research questions Buy now Qualitative Research Case Study Method
While objectivity is a goal, yin also recognizes the descriptive and interpretive elements of case study. However, extraction seems to be closely related to mayrings structuring since it literally means the extraction of the relevant information from the text by the means of using a category system. As a matter of fact, its quantitative counterpartclassical content analysisis repeatedly mentioned as a method of analyzing data in the context of conducting case study research (cf. It is essentially a coding operation, with coding being the process of transforming raw data into a standardized form (babbie, 2001, p. Remenyi, dan, money, arthur, price, david, & bannister, frank (2002).
In fact, gillham (2000) states that case study is a method, within which different sub-methods are used interviews, observations, document and record analysis, work samples etc (p Qualitative Research Case Study Method Buy now
At the same time he seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the important step of data analysis in case study research. The further development of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what kind of other errors can be made or occur in (conducting) content analysis (ibid). According to brown (2008), merriams style brings forth a practical application of pluralistic strategies that guide pragmatic constructivist research to derive knowledge about an area of inquiry. In fact, ryan and bernard (2000) see content analysis as one of the major coding traditions (p. Creswell (2014) refers to case studies as a qualitative design, while others use the term case study (flyvbjerg, 2011 stake, 1995, 2006 stewart, 2014), qualitative case study (merriam, 2009), or describe case study as an approach (simons, 2009) Buy Qualitative Research Case Study Method at a discount
This rule-based approach of qualitative content analysis is supposed to guarantee that the whole empirical basis is systematically dealt with and that the analysis is reproducible to a certain extent (gläser & laudel, 1999, pp. Harrison, helena birks, melanie franklin, richard & mills, jane (2017). That is why the procedures need to be tested in a pilot study. In fact, the theoretical basis of the first moves towards analyses of contents was harold d. Merriam (1998) maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially.
Mn(ed) is a phd candidate in the college of healthcare sciences, division of tropical health and medicine, james cook university, australia Buy Online Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Creswell (2014) refers to case studies as a qualitative design, while others use the term case study (flyvbjerg, 2011 stake, 1995, 2006 stewart, 2014), qualitative case study (merriam, 2009), or describe case study as an approach (simons, 2009). Developing research questions andor propositions to select the case, identify the focus, and refine the boundaries is recommended to effectively establish these elements in the research design (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014). Appelbaum, 2003, p. Design features are sequentially structured and motivated by empirical application. Denzin & yvonna s.
However, this qualitatively oriented approach to content analysisa discipline traditionally dominated by quantitative methodshas mainly been discussed and used within the german-speaking scientific community and does not seem to have attracted as much attention internationally as it actually deserves Buy Qualitative Research Case Study Method Online at a discount
In discussing the proliferation of definitions (and subsequent confusion), flyvbjerg (2011) contends that using a simple definition might be a more useful approach, citing the merriam-webster dictionarys (2009) definition, as an example that captures the key requisites in the context of research an intensive analysis of an individual unit (as a person or community) stressing developmental factors in relation to environment (p. For example, yin (2014) discusses case study research and in the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used. However, extraction seems to be closely related to mayrings structuring since it literally means the extraction of the relevant information from the text by the means of using a category system Qualitative Research Case Study Method For Sale
Case study research is most often described as qualitative inquiry (creswell, 2014 denzin & lincoln, 2011 merriam, 2009 miles et al. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researchers preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. With the dominance of logical positivism from the 1940s through to the 1960s and 1970s case study methodology was viewed with skepticism and criticism. Its development (section 4. The presentation will focus on qualitative content analysis as it was developed by philipp mayring in germany (see section 4.
According to yin what makes case study research distinct from experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its real world setting (p For Sale Qualitative Research Case Study Method
Figure 1 the history and evolution of case study research (johansson, 2003, p. However, not only the manifest content of the material is analyzed, but also so-called latent content as well as formal aspects of the material (mayring, 2000b, pp. The use of multiple methods to collect and analyze data are encouraged and found to be mutually informative in case study research where together they provide a more synergistic and comprehensive view of the issue being studied (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014). Selection of cases is based on the purpose of the research and related to the theoretical propositions about the topic of interest. While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research (boblin et al Sale Qualitative Research Case Study Method
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